Bibliometrics and citation analysis is one of the services the NOAA Central Library offers to NOAA researchers and staff and is one way we are able to illustrate NOAA's status as producer of world-class research. This page provides a guide to understanding and getting started with bibliometric measures. A printable version of this guide is available for download.
For information on other services we provide NOAA researchers please see the Author Services page.
For a searchable bibliography of NOAA articles please see the NOAA Peer-Reviewed Articles Bibliography.
What are bibliometrics?
Bibliometrics are the quantitative analysis of academic publications. Using academic publications as a data source, bibliometric analysis attempts to provide a better understanding of how research is produced, organized, and interrelated. It also attempts to evaluate academic publications and sets of publications based on the number of citations these publications have received. Bibliometrics and citation analysis is one way we are able to illustrate NOAA's status as producer of world-class research.
Why are bibliometrics important?
Limitations of bibliometrics
Types of Metrics
Publication metrics are used to analyze the research output of an individual, group or institution and include number of publications as well as:
Citation metrics are used to help determine the relative quality and impact of a single article or the research output of an individual, group or institution using citation counts.
Citation metrics include:
H-Index is a metric calculated using publication and ciation rates and can help determine relative quality of an author's work based on both productivity and impact. An author's h-index is equal to the
number of papers that author has published (n) that have received at least n citations; if an author has published 32 papers and 5 of those papers have received at least 5 citations, the author has an h-index of 5.
Keep in mind that h-index cannot be compared across fields due to variations in citation conventions and habits and is inherently biased towards older authors who have not only published more works but had the time to accumulate more citations.
Analysis of Citing Articles
Performing a publication analysis on the publications that cite a given article or set of articles can provide insight into how articles are being used by the greater scientific community. Tools like Web of Science make performing such an analysis relatively simple and adds helpful context.
An article's percentile rank is calculated based on how it compares to other papers published in the same year in the same field based on citation counts. In Web of Science, an article that received that received enough citations to rank it in the top one percent of papers published in the same year and field is considered a Highly Cited Paper. Percentile Ranks can be calculated for individual publications or for the output of an entire program or organization and have the advantage of being useful to compare impact across fields of study.
NOTE: Articles require at least 2 years to accumulate enough citations for article-level bibliometric indicators to be reliable.
Network analysis examines and visualizes the relationships between publications based on authorship, citations, or common terms.
There are three types of bibliometric networks:
Journal metrics seek to illustrate relative importance of a journal within its field. These metrics are not appropriate for evaluating articles published in those journals or the researchers who write those articles.
Basic Journal Indicators include:
The NOAA Central Library has number of ongoing projects including an effort to track and analyze all peer-reviewed articles published by NOAA authors dating back to 2012.
In December 2011, the library was tasked with assisting OAR in reporting the number of peer-reviewed publications produced by all NOAA authors per quarter in a consistent and reproducible manner. Using Web of Science as our primary data source, the library continues to identify and manage NOAA publications for this purpose.
In November 2012, we performed a preliminary analysis of the 1,800 publications that had been collected for fiscal year 2012. The analysis aimed both to summarize the nature of the publications produced and to begin the discussion about the types of analyses that would be useful to the agency. These discussions are ongoing.
A bibliography of NOAA-authored peer-reviewed publications is publicly available and updated quarterly.
Reports and Publications
An Analysis of Publications by NOAA Authors Published in FY2017 (pdf)
An Analysis of Publications by NOAA Authors Published in FY2016 (pdf)
Since 2001, Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER) has funded multiple Ocean Explorer expeditions and maintains an interactive Digital Atlas of all of the cruises sponsored by the Ocean Explorer program.
The data gathered on these expeditions has resulted in the publication of over 800 peer-reviewed journal articles, reviews, and notes. To provide access to these publications and to highlight the research resulting from the Ocean Explorer program, the NOAA Central Library have developed this bibliography. A citation analysis of these publications is produced quarterly and the most recent edition is available as a PDF.
This bibliography is available organized by author or expedition.
Upon request, we also offer services including:
If you’re interested in learning more about our program, would like to schedule a tutorial, or are interested in a custom portfolio analysis, contact Sarah Davis or Jamie Roberts.
Bibliometrics and You
NOAA staff have access to ORCiD or ResearcherID, both of which offer basic metrics as well as a way to distinguish your published work. Additionally, authors can set up a profile in Google Scholar to track who is citing your publications an other author metrics. For more information, visit the Google Scholar Citations page.
For more information on using these and other tools to create your own metrics, contact Sarah Davis or Jamie Roberts.